Creating a Safer and Healthier World Without Toxic

Do you know what will happen in the future when the toxicology can not be contained? While advancement of the vision is being accomplished in significant areas, as a Society we must position ourselves to face the challenge of Increasing the Impact and Future Vitality of Toxicology.

So, we must have the strategic plan to reduce this problem. The strategic plan presents a roadmap for meeting this challenge by setting priorities that:

  • Increase Scientific Impact
  • Advocate the Value of Toxicology
  • Build for the Future of Toxicology
  • Expand and Deepen Member Engagement
  • Strengthen Organizational Effectiveness

The strategic plan details how each of these priorities will be executed through a series of outcome-oriented objectives that will be supported by embracing best practices of professional Society oversight, engaging Society leadership at all levels, and by increasing the involvement of members at all career stages to ensure the future relevance and global impact of toxicology. So, let’s think about it.

source by : *ieda*

toxicity????


When talking about toxicity, the easiest way to divide chemicals is by the organ or system they damage. These target organs or systems are often referred to in safety data sheets and toxicology books. The commonest are: the lungs, the skin, the gut, the liver, the kidneys, the nervous system, the blood, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, and the reproductive system. There are even chemicals which can affect hearing.


Chemicals causing liver damage are sometimes called 'hepatotoxins', those which damage the kidneys 'renal toxins', and those harming the nervous system 'neurotoxins'. Chemicals that cause cancer, although they may affect either one or several organs, are lumped together and described as 'carcinogens'. Those that cause birth defects are called 'teratogens'.



"A toxin is generally understood to be a substance that is harmful to biological systems, but within this simple concept lies a great deal of variability. A substance that is harmful at a high dose may be innocuous or even essential at a lower dose. A toxin may damage a specific body system, or it may exert a general effect on an organism. A substance that is toxic to one species may not be toxic to another because of different metabolic pathways or protective mechanisms. And the biologic damage may be temporary, permanent over the organism's lifetime, or expressed over subsequent generations" (H. Frumkin in Levy and Wegman).


created by *nazirah bt mohd izani*

acute and chronic effect

Acute and chronic effect of dry sauna therapy in patients with chronic heart failure



Acute changes in % and chronic changes in %



acute vs chronic effect...

Hi my dear friend..
Here i wanna share a video about acute vs chronic effect




video
lecture by peter fraser

by *nazirah*

snap!! snap!!

i like to share a few picture...i hope we see n think about that...


by : *adawiah*

think about that..

by : *adawiah*

Read Thiss For UR safety LIfe!!!!

New news AbouT toXic cHemiCal.

Hello Friends and welcome to our blog.

As all known, we have shared some information on toxicology databases for consumers which can be used for further readings on toxicology in previous post.

Now, we would like to share a new information on the topic of toxic chemicals which will explain the meaning and the harmness of toxic chemicals.




Lets check it out!!!


Toxic chemicals are chemicals that can produce injury or death when inhaled, ingested, or absorbed through the skin. Damage may result from acute or chronic exposures and involve local tissue or internal organs. The extent of the injury depends on the dose administered, duration of the exposure, physical state, solubility, and interaction with other chemicals. Toxic chemicals include corrosives, systemic poisons, carcinogens, mutagens, and embryotoxins..

Toxicology Databases - for Consumers

  • Household Products Database
    A consumer's guide to the potential health effects of more than 2,000 ingredients contained in more than 5,000 common household products used inside and around the home.
  • LactMed
    A peer-reviewed and fully referenced database of drugs to which breastfeeding mothers may be exposed. Among the data included are maternal and infant levels of drugs, possible effects on breastfed infants and on lactation, and alternate drugs to consider.
  • Shopper's Guide to Pesticides
    The Shopper's Guide to Pesticides ranks pesticide contamination for 47 popular fruits and vegetables based on an analysis of 87,000 tests for pesticides on these foods, conducted from 2000 to 2007 by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Food and Drug Administration. Nearly all the studies used to create the list test produce after it has been rinsed or peeled. Contamination was measured in six different ways and crops were ranked based on a composite score from all categories.
  • Tox Town
    From the National Library of Medicine, Tox Town illustrates everyday locations where toxic chemicals might be found, impact of the environment on human health and more.


Resources : http://libguides.fhcrc.org/toxicology
By : nitt

History of toxicology

Do you want to know about the history of toxicology???
It is too much....=(

Anyway..try to read it k..juz a little bit...

Although toxicology—as a formally recognized scientific discipline—is relatively new (with major developments in the mid-1900s), the science itself is thousands of years old. Consider the potential results of early trial and error experiences of hunter-gatherers for whom identifying a toxic plant or animal was a life or death situation. Some of the most poisonous substances known today are naturally produced chemicals including ricin from castor beans or tetrodotoxin from the puffer fish. Early humankinds’ careful observation of such plants or animals with toxic characteristics as frogs, containing curare, were put to use not only for avoidance of toxic substances but for weaponry as well. Many naturally-derived poisons were likely used for hunting, as medicinals (the Egyptians were aware of many such toxic substances as lead, opium and hemlock as early as 1500 BCE). Use extended eventually to political poisonings as practiced, for example, by the early Greeks and Romans.

One of the more interesting stories resulting from a combination of both ancient history and current toxicological research, is the story of King Mithridates, king of Pontus (120-63 BC) who according to toxicology legend was so afraid that he might be a casualty of political poisoning, is said to have concocted a potion from a great number of herbs for his own consumption. It is believed he understood that by consuming small amounts of potential poisons, he might protect himself from any would-be poisoner. That is, he believed in the effectiveness of hormesis. Apparently, his plans worked so well that he gained a name for himself as one so mighty he could not be killed. Unfortunately, it is said that when circumstances were such that he desired to kill himself, he was unable to do so by ingesting poison and had to be run through by a sword instead.

resources : http://www.eoearth.org/article/History_of_toxicology

by :nitt

Toxicology Problem Set

Hey Guyz..Lets try to do it!!!


This problem set is designed to help you understand basic principles of toxicology. You will learn what a hazard is, where hazards can come from, how they affect humans, and methods to control hazards. You will also learn about careers in the environmental health sciences.

1. Natural and human-made chemicals
2. Hazards and sources
3. Routes of entry
4. How chemicals are processed in the body
5. Dose
6. Measuring dose
7. Dose and response
8. Factors affecting dose
9. Factors affecting individual susceptibility
10. Hazard control
11. Fields in the environmental health sciences

Instructions: Each topic page has a multiple choice question designed to help you learn the concepts. If you click on the correct answer, you will see the word "correct" along with reinforcing information. If you click on an incorrect answer, you will be given a tutorial page. You can also go directly to the tutorial page by clicking on the tutorial button. Enjoy yourself - it doesn't matter if you select the right or wrong answer - the point is to learn!

Chemicals & Human Health

Resources: http://www.biology.arizona.edu/chh/problem_sets/toxicology/toxicology.html

By : nitt

PoSiTive ToXin??

What is positive toxin?
before this we just know about harmfull toxic in our older post.. But not all toxin is not good for our body.. some time toxin is needed in our body as an antibody...so positive toxin here is define as a good toxin needed in our body..

Microbial toxins are toxins produced by microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses and fungi. Microbial toxins are important virulence determinants responsible for microbial pathogenicity and/or evasion of the host immune response. Some bacterial toxins, such as Botulinum neurotoxins, are the most potent natural toxins known. However, microbial toxins also have important uses in medical science and research. Potential applications of toxin research include combating microbial virulence, the development of novel anti-cancer drugs and other medicines, and the use of toxins as tools in neurobiology and cellular biology.


Botulinum neurotoxin

Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most potent natural toxins known. They act as metalloproteinases that enter peripheral cholinergic nerve terminals and cleave proteins that are crucial components of the neuroexocytosis apparatus, causing a persistent but reversible inhibition of neurotransmitter release resulting in flaccid muscle paralysis.

Anthrax toxin

Bacillus anthracis produces two major virulence factors, a tripartite exotoxin referred to as anthrax toxin, and an antiphagocytic capsule.

Subtilase cytotoxin

This cleavage triggers a severe ER stress response, ultimately resulting in apoptosis. The B subunit has specificity for glycans terminating in the sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid. The role of SubAB in human disease remains to be established.

Pasteurella multocida toxin

Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT) is the major pathogenic deteriment of Pasteurella multocida. The species P. multocida causes various causative agent of the economically important atrophic diseases of animals and humans. The toxin is therhinitis in swine.

Vibrio RTX toxins

Multifunctional-Autoprocessing RTX toxins are a unique family of secreted proteins toxins, predominantly produced by the Vibrio sp.

Helicobacter pylori toxin
Helicobacter pylori, a Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the human stomach, secretes a toxin known as VacA. This toxin was initially identified based on its ability to cause vacuolation in cultured gastric epithelial cells.

Staphylococcal toxins

Immune evasion proteins from Staphylococcus aureus have a significant conservation of protein structures and a range of activities that are all directed at the two key elements of host immunity, complement and neutrophils. These secreted virulence factors assist the bacterium to surivive the immune response.

Cyanobacteria toxins

Cyanobacteria produce a large variety of bioactive compounds, including substances with anti-cancer and anti-viral activity, UV protectants, specific inhibitors of enzymes, and potent hepatotoxins and neurotoxins.

resource: www.wikipedia.com

by:*esyahzul*

ConTinuE...ToXiN CleanSinG

okay....we know that in our body is fully with toxic because everyday we expose to harmfull environment..

Do You Breathe?
Our air is filled with harmful pollutants.

Do You Drink Bottled Water?
Can be loaded with antimony toxins, which are suspected carcinogens.

Do You Eat Fruits And Vegetables?
filled with pesticides and herbicides.

but dont worry my friend, now my entry is about how to clean toxin in our body...
read more at below...

The ideal way to cleanse our bodies is elimination through the colon. This is the subject that nobody likes to talk about. The colon should evacuate two or three times per day. Anything less is fairly severe constipation. Toxins affect the whole body and can circulate in the bloodstream. They travel from the colon, through the portal vein to the liver and on into the bloodstream. Even a healthy liver cannot fully break down all toxins. If it is weakened or overwhelmed by toxins, some of these toxins will enter the bloodstream. If poisons cannot be evacuated through the colon, the body will try to handle them in other ways. This causes a steady increase of problems in other areas. Many doctors and naturopathic health practitioners have concluded that ALL disease begins with colon toxicity and healing requires cleansing the colon as the first step. Laxatives do not accomplish this. They merely lead to dependence on their use if taken for an extended period of time.

The skin is the largest organ in the human body. It has many functions and one paramount to our health is as a backup to the colon in detoxifying the body through perspiration. If toxins cannot escape any other way, they will exit through the skin. Skin problems (boils, rashes, acne, etc.) are a sure sign that the body has reached a high level of toxicity. You cannot expect to cure a skin problem simply by applying creams, lotions, cleansers, salves or ointments to the outside. The problem lies within and must be eliminated. If toxins are expelled through the colon, they do not have a chance to cause problems by exiting through the skin.

Interstitial fluid surrounds every cell in the body. The lymph system receives this fluid through the thin walls of lymphatic capillaries. After it enters the lymphatic system, this fluid is known as lymph. It is much like blood but it does not contain blood corpuscles. The lymph system is a one-way system that has no pump. It relies on muscle activity to move the fluid through the system. Lymph nodes are small round organs distributed along the lymphatic vessels. Their job is to filter and destroy foreign particles from the fluid before it is returned to the cardiovascular system. In a toxic body, the lymphatic system can become sluggish and unable to do its job. This can lead to catastrophic diseases. If the toxins can be properly removed through the digestive tract, the lymphatic system is better able to do its job.

The kidneys, liver, spleen, gallbladder, pancreas and lungs are also adversely affected when toxins are not removed through the colon.

suggested product to toxin cleansing
KinoHimiTsu

Kinohimitsu Health Pads help the body achieve its optimum state of wellbeing by supporting and generating improved blood cells, body metabolism, enhanced quality of sleep and the absorption of harmful body toxins.

Toxin Cleanse herbal Formulae

Dr. J’s Toxin Cleanse has been formulated to remove toxins from the body through the colon. It is not a laxative. However, its use will lead to normalized bowel movements. This is primarily because it removes the buildup of the tar-like substance that coats the walls of the colon in most peoples’ bodies.

resource: Zellcon HerBa Formulae, KInohimitsu
http://zellconherbalformulas.com/ToxinCleanse01.htm

by:*esyahzul*

ToXin, ToxIn Everywhere

hye...i'm come back again with new post about toxin..before this i already post about what is toxin, reducing toxin product at home and now i want to share with you all about HaRmFull ToXiN...toxin,toxin everywhere....

Every day we are bombarded with pollution and harmful toxins, many of which did not exist 50 to 100 years ago. There are 400 chemical pollutants that we come in contact with that were not even invented when our grandparents were alive. One of the most effectve ways at dealing with these toxins is with plenty of antioxidant rich foods and daily Infrared Sauna sweating. The following are just a few examles of the toxins that are floating around our air and that can enter through our skin or lungs on a daily basis. It becomes easy to understand why we need a bit more help these days surviving in this world of ever increasing pollutants.

for your information here, we can divide harmfull toxin to two part that is indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution.

InDooR AiR PolluTioN.
Indoor air pollution can affect you at home, work, or even places you visit. It is a common source of respiratory diseases, including asthma, allergies, and lung cancer. It can be worse in winter, when windows are shut tight and less fresh air can circulate.
eg: cigarretes smoke, woodstoves camfires and gas ranges, building material,sick building syndrome and building related asthma, bacteris,mold,viruses and other biological contaminants, household product and radon.

Some harmful cigarette ingredients

Look at some substances found in cigarettes and analyze if you really want to put one in your mouth.

  • Acetone – found in nail polish removal
  • Arsenic – used in rat poison
  • Butane – lighter fuel ingredient
  • Cadmium – used in batteries
  • Forms of cyanide – deadly poisonous substances
  • DDT – a banned insecticide
  • Formaldehyde – used to preserve dead beings
  • Lead – poisonous metal
  • Methanol – rocket fuel component
  • Naphthalene – used in mothballs
  • Methyl isocynate – dangerous substance which can kill. 2000 people died in India when this substance leaked out by accident.
  • Polonium – a highly radioactive element
  • Toluene – strong cleaning solvent


This is only a sample of what cigarettes contain. If you go through the whole list, you will find many more harmful substances.


Toxins released when cigarette ingredients burn


Here are some toxins which are inhaled by a person who smokes a cigarette

Carbon monoxide – a poisonous gas which can affect the oxygen carrying ability of the blood
Tar – this sticky substance gets deposited in the lungs and over a long time may damage them

The thing with cigarette smoke is that it not only affects the smoker, but also people in their surroundings who inhale the smoke indirectly. The consequences of passive smoking are quite harmful too.


Outdoor Air POluttion
Polluted air comes from many sources. There are the usual suspects: factories, cars, buses, trucks, and power plants. But there are sources you may not think of, such as dry cleaners, wildfires, and dust. Dirty air is a threat to your health, and it also damages crops, trees, water, and animals.

resources: simple healthy solutions.
http://www.fit4maui.com

by:*esyahzul*

click!!click!!!

hye..i like to share about one module...you can click link at below to download this module.

http://www.scribd.com/doc/3611209/persekitaran-bersih-sihat


its good for our to have this module..but must read and practic it in our life...bye~

by : *adawiah*

What Do I Do With .... ?

"One person's trash is another person's treasure".
~ Unknown

Mr. Fix It Repair Shop

There are many ways to reuse or recycle items that are no longer of use to you. By reusing or recycling these items, we can reduce the amount and toxicity of the garbage that is disposed in Connecticut. Some alternatives to disposal that you should think about include:

Fix it! Can your item be repaired? If so, you will not have anything to dispose of, and you could save on replacement costs.

Give it away! If the item you have is still usable, chances are that there is someone else that could use it. Before throwing it away, check with friends, relatives, and neighbors to see if they would like to have it. Consider listing items on an Internet site such as FreeCycle, and Craigslist, or in free classified ads and circulars. Or, just put it on your curb on a nice day with a sign on it saying "free."

Donate it! Many charities are happy to take items such as consumer electronics, furniture, rugs, etc. Before throwing these kinds of items away, check with your local Goodwill, Salvation Army, church, reuse store, or other charities to see what items they may be willing to take. Some organizations will even schedule free pickups of donated items.

Sell it! Hold a tag sale, or take your item(s) to a local flea market (look in your local newspaper for times and locations in your area). Or, list your item on an Internet site like eBay, Craigslist, or other similar sites. You might be surprised to find that that an old item you think is a piece of junk is just what some collector is looking for!...

resource: Depatrment of environmental protection

by:*esyahzul*

Dose - Response Curve (LD-50, ED-50 and TD-50)

Individuals differ in their response to chemicals and it is difficult to predict the dose that will cause a response in a particular individual. For this reason, it is practical to predict what percentage of a population will respond to a specific dose of a chemical.

For example, the dose at which 50% of the population dies is called the lethal dose 50, or LD-50. The LD-50 is a crude approximation of a chemical’s toxicity. It is a gruesome index that does not adequately convey the sophistication of modern toxicology and is of little use in setting a standard for toxicity. However, the LD-50 determination is required for new synthetic chemicals as a way of estimating their toxic potential. Table 1 shows the examples of LD-50 values in rodents for selected chemicals.

The ED-50 (effective dose 50%) is the dose that causes an effect in 50% of the population of observed subjects. For example, the ED-50 of aspirin would be the dose that relieves headaches in 50% of the people.

The TD-50 (toxic dose 50%) is defined as the dose that is toxic to 50% of the population. TD-50 is often used to indicate responses such as reduced enzyme activity, decrease reproductive success or onset of specific symptoms such as loss of hearing, nausea or slurred speech.

For a particular chemical, there may be a whole family of dose-response curves, illustrated in Figure 2. Which dose is of interest depends on what is being evaluated. For example, for insecticides we may wish to know the dose that will kill 100% of the insects exposed; therefore the LD-95 (the dose that kills 95% of the insects) may be the minimum acceptable level. However, when considering human health and the exposure to a particular toxin, we often want to know the LD-0 which is the maximum dose that does not cause any deaths. For potentially toxic compounds such as insecticides, which may form a residue on food or food additives, we want to ensure that the expected levels of human exposure will have no known toxic effects. From an environmental perspective, this is important because of concerns about increased risk of cancer associated with exposure to toxic agents.

For drug used to treat a particular disease, the efficiency of the drug as a treatment is of paramount importance. In addition to knowing what the therapeutic value (ED-50) is, it is also important to know the relative safety of the drug. For example, there may be an overlap between the therapeutic dose (ED) and the toxic dose (TD) (see Figure 2). That is, the dose that causes a positive therapeutic response in some individuals might be toxic to others. A quantitative measure of the relative safety of a particular drug is the therapeutic index, defined as the ratio of the LD-50 to the ED-50. The greater the therapeutic index, the safer the drug is believed to be. In other words, a drug with a large difference between the lethal and therapeutic dose is safer than one with a smaller difference.